Economic Relations

Article 119 [General Principles]

1. The Republic of Kosovo shall ensure a favorable legal environment for a market economy, freedom of economic activity and safeguards for private and public property.    

2. The Republic of Kosovo shall ensure equal legal rights for all domestic and foreign investors and enterprises.

3. Actions limiting free competition through the establishment or abuse of a dominant position or practices restricting competition are prohibited, unless explicitly allowed by law.

4. The Republic of Kosovo promotes the welfare of all of its citizens by fostering sustainable economic development.

5. The Republic of Kosovo shall establish independent market regulators where the market alone cannot sufficiently protect the public interest.

6. A foreign investor is guaranteed the right to freely transfer profit and invested capital outside the country in accordance with the law. 

7. Consumer protection is guaranteed in accordance with the law.

8. Every person is required to pay taxes and other contributions as provided by law.

9. The Republic of Kosovo shall exercise its ownership function over any enterprise it controls consistently with the public interest, with a view to maximizing the long-term value of the enterprise.

10. Public service obligation may be imposed on such enterprises in accordance with the law, which shall also provide for a fair compensation. 

Article 120 [Public Finances]

1.  Public expenditure and the collection of public revenue shall be based on the principles of accountability, effectiveness, efficiency and transparency.

2.  The conduct of fiscal policy at all levels of government shall be compatible with the conditions for low-inflationary and sustainable economic growth and employment creation.

3.  Public borrowing shall be regulated by law and shall be compatible with economic stability and fiscal sustainability.

Article 121 [Property]

1. Types of property shall be defined by law.

2. Foreign natural persons and foreign organizations may acquire ownership rights over immovable property in accordance with such reasonable conditions as may be established by law or international agreement.    

3. Foreign natural persons and foreign organizations may, in accordance with such reasonable conditions as may be established by law, acquire concession rights and other rights to use and/or exploit publicly owned resources, including natural resources, and publicly owned infrastructure.

Article 122 [Use of Property and Natural Resources]

1. The people of the Republic of Kosovo may, in accordance with such reasonable conditions as may be established by law, enjoy the natural resources of the Republic of Kosovo, but they may not infringe on the obligations stemming from international agreements on economic cooperation.      

2. Natural resources such as water, air space, mineral resources and other natural resources including land, flora and fauna, other parts of nature, immovable property and other goods of special cultural, historic, economic and ecologic importance, which have been determined by law to be of special interest to the Republic of Kosovo, shall enjoy special protection in accordance with law.            

3. Limitations on owners’ rights and other exploitation rights on goods of special interest to the Republic of Kosovo and the compensation for such limitations shall be provided by law.


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